Ukuqonda ulwazi lwezinto ezibonakalayo kazibuthe

2022-01-11

1. Kungani omazibuthe bengakazibuthe?

Izinto eziningi zakhiwa ama- molecule akhiwe ama-athomu wona akhiwa ama- nuclei nama- electron. Ngaphakathi kwe-athomu, ama-electron ajikeleza futhi azungeza i-nucleus, womabili akhiqiza i-magnetism. Kodwa ezindabeni eziningi, ama-electron ahamba ngazo zonke izinhlobo zezindlela ezingahleliwe, futhi imiphumela kazibuthe iyakhansela. Ngakho-ke, izinto eziningi azibonisi i-magnetism ngaphansi kwezimo ezijwayelekile.

Ngokungafani nezinto ze-ferromagnetic ezifana ne-iron, i-cobalt, i-nickel noma i-ferrite, ama-electron spins angaphakathi angakwazi ukuhleleka ngokuzenzakalelayo ezindaweni ezincane, akhe isifunda samagnetization esizenzakalelayo esibizwa ngokuthi isizinda kazibuthe. Lapho izinto ze-ferromagnetic zenziwe zikazibuthe, izizinda zazo zangaphakathi kazibuthe ziqondana kahle futhi zibheke ohlangothini olufanayo, ziqinisa uzibuthe futhi zakhe omazibuthe. Inqubo kazibuthe uzibuthe inqubo uzibuthe yensimbi. Insimbi enozibuthe kanye nomazibuthe zinokukhanga okuhlukile kwe-polarity, futhi insimbi "inamathele" ngokuqinile kanye nozibuthe.

2. Ungakuchaza kanjani ukusebenza kukazibuthe?

Ikakhulukazi kunezinhlaka ezintathu zokusebenza zokunquma ukusebenza kukazibuthe:
I-Remanent Br: Ngemva kokuthi umazibuthe unomphela enziwe uzibuthe ekugcwalisweni kwezobuchwepheshe kanye nenkundla kazibuthe yangaphandle isusiwe, i-Br egciniwe ibizwa nge-residual magnetic induction intensity.
I-Coercivity Hc: Ukunciphisa u-B wezibuthe ongunaphakade owenziwe uzibuthe ekugcwalisweni kobuchwepheshe abe uziro, ukuqina kwenkundla kazibuthe ehlehlayo edingekayo kubizwa ngokuthi ukuphoqa kazibuthe, noma ukuphoqelelwa ngamafuphi.
Umkhiqizo wamandla kazibuthe u-BH: umele ukuminyana kwamandla kazibuthe osungulwe uzibuthe esikhaleni segebe lomoya (isikhala esiphakathi kwezigxobo kazibuthe ezimbili zikazibuthe), okungukuthi, amandla kazibuthe amile ngeyunithi ngayinye yevolumu yegebe lomoya.

3. Indlela yokuhlukanisa izinto zensimbi kazibuthe?

Izinto ezibonakalayo ze-Metal magnetic zihlukaniswe zibe izinto ezihlala njalo kazibuthe kanye nezinto ezithambile kazibuthe. Ngokuvamile, okokusebenza okunokucindezela kwangaphakathi okukhulu kuno-0.8kA/m kubizwa ngokuthi okokusebenza kazibuthe okungapheli, futhi okokusebenza okunokucindezela kwangaphakathi okungaphansi kuka-0.8kA/m kubizwa ngokuthi okokusebenza kazibuthe okuthambile.

4. Ukuqhathaniswa kwamandla kazibuthe ezinhlobo ezimbalwa zozibuthe abavame ukusetshenziswa

Amandla kazibuthe asuka kokukhulu kuya kulungiselelo oluncane: Uzibuthe we-Ndfeb, uzibuthe we-samarium cobalt, uzibuthe we-aluminium nickel cobalt, uzibuthe we-ferrite.

5. Isifaniso se-valence yocansi sezinto ezihlukene kazibuthe?

I-Ferrite: ukusebenza okuphansi nokuphakathi, intengo ephansi kakhulu, izici zokushisa ezinhle, ukumelana nokugqwala, isilinganiso sentengo yokusebenza okuhle
I-Ndfeb: ukusebenza okuphezulu kakhulu, intengo ephakathi, amandla amahle, ayimelani nokushisa okuphezulu nokugqwala
I-Samarium cobalt: ukusebenza okuphezulu, inani eliphakeme kakhulu, i-brittle, izici zokushisa ezinhle kakhulu, ukumelana nokugqwala
I-Aluminium nickel cobalt: ukusebenza okuphansi nokuphakathi, intengo ephakathi, izici zokushisa ezinhle kakhulu, ukumelana nokugqwala, ukumelana nokuphazamiseka okungekuhle
I-Samarium cobalt, i-ferrite, i-Ndfeb ingenziwa nge-sintering kanye nendlela yokubopha. Impahla kazibuthe sintering iphakeme, ukwakheka kubi, futhi uzibuthe bonding muhle futhi ukusebenza kunciphe kakhulu. I-AlNiCo ingakhiqizwa ngezindlela zokusakaza nezindlela zokucwilisa, omagnet abakhiphayo banezakhiwo eziphakeme nokungenzeki kahle, futhi omazibuthe abane-sintered banezakhiwo eziphansi nokubumbeka okungcono.

6. Izici ze-Ndfeb uzibuthe

I-Ndfeb inomphela kazibuthe iyinto ehlala njalo kazibuthe esekelwe kunhlanganisela ye-intermetallic Nd2Fe14B. I-Ndfeb inomkhiqizo namandla kazibuthe aphezulu kakhulu, futhi izinzuzo zokuminyana kwamandla aphezulu zenza i-ndFEB unomphela uzibuthe impahla esetshenziswa kabanzi embonini yesimanje nobuchwepheshe be-elekthronikhi, ukuze amathuluzi, ama-electroacoustic motors, ukuhlukaniswa kazibuthe ukuhlukaniswa kwemishini ye-magnetization miniaturization, isisindo esilula, mncane sibe mncane. kungenzeka.

Izici zezinto ezibonakalayo: I-Ndfeb inezinzuzo zokusebenza kwezindleko eziphakeme, ezinezici ezinhle zemishini; Ububi ukuthi izinga lokushisa le-Curie liphansi, izinga lokushisa alilungile, futhi kulula ukugqwala njengempuphu, ngakho-ke kufanele lithuthukiswe ngokulungisa ukwakheka kwalo kwamakhemikhali nokwamukela ukwelashwa kwendawo ukuze lihlangabezane nezidingo zokusetshenziswa okungokoqobo.
Inqubo yokukhiqiza: Ukwakhiwa kwe-Ndfeb kusetshenziswa inqubo ye-powder metallurgy.
Ukugeleza kwenqubo: ukuhlanganisa → ukwenza i-ingot encibilikayo → ukwenza impushana → ukucindezela → i-sintering tempering → ukutholwa kazibuthe → ukugaya → ukusika iphini → i-electroplating → umkhiqizo ophelile.

7. Uyini uzibuthe onehlangothi olulodwa?

I-Magnet inezigxobo ezimbili, kodwa endaweni ethile yomsebenzi idinga ozibuthe be-pole eyodwa, ngakho-ke sidinga ukusebenzisa insimbi endaweni yokubeka uzibuthe, insimbi eceleni kwesivikelo sikazibuthe, futhi ngokuhlehla kuya kolunye uhlangothi lwepuleti likazibuthe, senze elinye. side of uzibuthe ukuqinisa uzibuthe, ozibuthe baziwa ngokuhlanganyela ngokuthi kazibuthe olulodwa noma odonsa. Ayikho into okuthiwa uzibuthe onezinhlangothi eziyiqiniso.
Izinto ezisetshenziselwa uzibuthe ohlangothini olulodwa ngokuvamile ziyi-arc iron sheet kanye nozibuthe oqinile we-Ndfeb, ukwakheka kukazibuthe ohlangothini olulodwa lwe-ndFEB uzibuthe oqinile ngokuvamile kuyindilinga.

8. Kuyini ukusetshenziswa kozibuthe abahlangothi olulodwa?

(1) Isetshenziswa kakhulu embonini yokunyathelisa. Kunozibuthe abanohlangothi olulodwa emabhokisini ezipho, amabhokisi omakhalekhukhwini, amabhokisi kagwayi nawewayini, amabhokisi omakhalekhukhwini, amabhokisi e-MP3, amabhokisi ekhekhe lenyanga neminye imikhiqizo.
(2) Isetshenziswa kakhulu embonini yezimpahla zesikhumba. Izikhwama, izikhwama, izikhwama zokuhamba, amakesi omakhalekhukhwini, izikhwama zemali kanye nezinye izimpahla zesikhumba konke kunozibuthe abahlangothi olulodwa.
(3) Isetshenziswa kakhulu embonini yokubhala. Ozibuthe abasohlangothini olulodwa bakhona ezincwadini zamanothi, izinkinobho zebhodi elimhlophe, amafolda, amaplathi amagama kazibuthe nokunye.

9. Yini okufanele inakwe lapho kuthuthwa omazibuthe?

Naka umswakama ongaphakathi endlini, okumele ugcinwe usezingeni elomile. Ungeqi izinga lokushisa legumbi; Ibhulokhi elimnyama noma isimo esingenalutho sesitoreji somkhiqizo singagcotshwa kahle ngamafutha (amafutha ajwayelekile); Imikhiqizo ye-Electroplating kufanele ibe i-vacuum-sealed noma isitoreji esihlukaniswe nomoya, ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukumelana nokugqwala kokunamathela; Imikhiqizo yamagnetic kufanele imunce ndawonye futhi igcinwe emabhokisini ukuze ingamunyi eminye imizimba yensimbi; Imikhiqizo kazibuthe kufanele igcinwe kude namadiski kazibuthe, amakhadi kazibuthe, amateyipu kazibuthe, iziqapha zekhompyutha, amawashi nezinye izinto ezibucayi. Isimo sokusebenza kazibuthe kufanele sivikelwe ngesikhathi sokuthutha, ikakhulukazi ezokuthutha emoyeni kufanele zivikelwe ngokuphelele.

10. Ungafinyelela kanjani ukuhlukaniswa kazibuthe?

Izinto kuphela ezingaxhunywa kuzibuthe ezingavimba insimu kazibuthe, futhi uma i-material ishubile, iba ngcono.

11. Iyiphi impahla ye-ferrite ehambisa ugesi?

I-ferrite kazibuthe ethambile iyingxenye ye-conductivity kazibuthe, ukufinyeleleka okuphezulu okuqondile, ukumelana okuphezulu, okuvame ukusetshenziswa emazingeni aphezulu, ikakhulukazi asetshenziswa ekuxhumaneni ngogesi. Njengamakhompyutha nama-TV esiwathinta nsuku zonke, kunezinhlelo zokusebenza kuwo.
I-ferrite ethambile ikakhulukazi ihlanganisa i-manganese-zinc ne-nickel-zinc njll. I-Manganese-zinc ferrite conductivity kazibuthe inkulu kunaleyo ye-nickel-zinc ferrite.
Liyini izinga lokushisa le-Curie le-ferrite yamagnetic unomphela?
Kubikwa ukuthi izinga lokushisa le-Curie le-ferrite licishe libe ngu-450℃, ngokuvamile likhulu noma lilingana no-450℃. Ubukhulu bungama-480-580. Izinga lokushisa le-Curie likazibuthe we-Ndfeb ngokuyisisekelo liphakathi kuka-350-370℃. Kodwa izinga lokushisa lokusebenzisa leNdfeb uzibuthe alikwazi ukufinyelela izinga lokushisa leCurie, izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-180-200℃ impahla kazibuthe iyancipha kakhulu, ukulahlekelwa kazibuthe nakho kukhulu kakhulu, kulahlekelwe inani lokusetshenziswa.

13. Yiziphi imingcele esebenzayo ye-magnetic core?

Ama-Magnetic cores, ikakhulukazi izinto ze-ferrite, anezinhlobonhlobo zobukhulu bejometri. Ukuze kuhlangatshezwane nezidingo zedizayini ezehlukene, usayizi womongo nawo ubalwa ukuze uvumelane nezidingo zokulungiselela. Le mingcele ekhona eyinhloko ihlanganisa imingcele ebonakalayo efana nendlela kazibuthe, indawo ephumelelayo kanye nevolumu esebenzayo.

14. Kungani i-radius esekhoneni ibalulekile ekusongelweni?

I-angular radius ibalulekile ngoba uma unqenqema lwengqikithi lucijile kakhulu, lunganqamula ukufakwa kocingo phakathi nenqubo yokusonta okunembayo. Qiniseka ukuthi imiphetho ewumgogodla ibushelelezi. Ama-Ferrite cores ayisikhunta esinerediyasi eyindilinga evamile, futhi lawa ma cores ayapholishwa futhi akhishwe ukuze kwehliswe ukucija kwamaphethelo awo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ama-cores amaningi apendwe noma amboziwe hhayi nje ukwenza ama-engeli awo adlule, kodwa futhi enze indawo yawo ephendukayo ibe bushelelezi. I-powder core ine-radius yokucindezela ohlangothini olulodwa kanye ne-deburring semi-circle ngakolunye uhlangothi. Ngezinto ze-ferrite, kunikezwa isembozo somphetho esengeziwe.

15. Iluphi uhlobo lwe-magnetic core olufanele ukwenza ama-transformers?

Ukuze kuhlangatshezwane nezidingo ze-transformer core kufanele kube nomfutho ophezulu wokungeniswa kazibuthe ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngakolunye uhlangothi ukugcina izinga lokushisa likhuphuka ngaphakathi komkhawulo othile.
Ukuze uthole i-inductance, umgogodla kazibuthe kufanele ube negebe elithile lomoya ukuqinisekisa ukuthi unezinga elithile lokungena esimweni se-DC ephezulu noma i-AC drive, i-ferrite kanye nomgogodla kungaba ukwelashwa kwegebe lomoya, i-powder core inegebe layo lomoya.

16. Iluphi uhlobo lukazibuthe olungcono kakhulu?

Kufanele kushiwo ukuthi ayikho impendulo enkingeni, ngoba ukukhethwa komgogodla kazibuthe kunqunywa ngesisekelo sezinhlelo zokusebenza kanye nemvamisa yesicelo, njll, noma yikuphi ukukhetha kwezinto ezibonakalayo kanye nezici zemakethe okufanele zicatshangelwe, isibonelo, ezinye izinto zingaqinisekisa ukuthi ukukhuphuka kwezinga lokushisa kuncane, kodwa intengo iyabiza, ngakho-ke, lapho ukhetha impahla ngokumelene nokushisa okuphezulu, kungenzeka ukukhetha usayizi omkhulu kodwa impahla enenani eliphansi ukuze uqedele umsebenzi, ngakho-ke ukukhethwa kwezinto ezingcono kakhulu ezidingekayo zokufaka isicelo. ku-inductor yakho yokuqala noma i-transformer, kusukela kuleli phuzu, imvamisa yokusebenza kanye nezindleko yizici ezibalulekile, njengokuthi ukukhethwa okuphelele kwezinto ezihlukene kusekelwe ekushintsheni imvamisa, izinga lokushisa kanye nobuningi be-magnetic flux.

17. Iyini indandatho kazibuthe ephikisana nokuphazamiseka?

I-anti-interference magnetic ring ibizwa nangokuthi indandatho kazibuthe ye-ferrite. Umthombo wamakholi we-anti-interference magnetic ring, ukuthi ungadlala indima yokulwa nokuphazamiseka, isibonelo, imikhiqizo ye-elekthronikhi, isignali yokuphazamiseka yangaphandle, ukuhlasela kwemikhiqizo ye-elekthronikhi, imikhiqizo ye-elekthronikhi yathola ukuphazamiseka kwesignali yangaphandle, ayizange ikwazi ukugijima ngokujwayelekile, futhi indandatho kazibuthe ephikisana nokuphazamiseka, ingaba nalo msebenzi, inqobo nje uma imikhiqizo kanye nendandatho kazibuthe ephikisana nokuphazamiseka, ingavimbela isignali yokuphazamiseka kwangaphandle emikhiqizweni ye-elekthronikhi, Ingenza imikhiqizo kagesi isebenze ngokujwayelekile futhi dlala umphumela wokulwa nokuphazamiseka, ngakho ubizwa ngokuthi indandatho kazibuthe ephikisana nokuphazamiseka.

Indandatho kazibuthe ephikisana nokuphazamiseka yaziwa nangokuthi yindandatho kazibuthe ye-ferrite, ngoba indandatho kazibuthe ye-ferrite yenziwe nge-iron oxide, i-nickel oxide, i-zinc oxide, i-copper oxide nezinye izinto ze-ferrite, ngoba lezi zinto ziqukethe izingxenye ze-ferrite, nezinto ze-ferrite ezikhiqizwa umkhiqizo njengendandatho, ngakho ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ubizwa ngokuthi yi-ferrite magnetic ring.

18. Indlela yokwenza demagnetize the core kazibuthe?

Indlela iwukusebenzisa i-alternating current engu-60Hz emnyombweni ukuze umshini wokuqala wokushayela wanele ukugcwalisa iziphetho ezinhle nezingezinhle, bese wehlisa kancane kancane izinga lokushayela, eliphindaphindwayo izikhathi ezimbalwa lize lehlele kuqanda. Futhi lokho kuzokwenza ukuthi ibuyele esimweni sayo sasekuqaleni.
Iyini i-magnetoelasticity (magnetostriction)?
Ngemuva kokuthi izinto zikazibuthe zenziwe zibuthe, kuzokwenzeka ushintsho oluncane lwejometri. Lolu shintsho ngosayizi kufanele lube ngokulandelana kwezingxenye ezimbalwa ngesigidi, okubizwa ngokuthi i-magnetostriction. Kwezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza, njengamajeneretha e-ultrasonic, inzuzo yalesi sakhiwo ithathwa ukuze kutholwe ukuguqulwa komshini nge-magnetostriction ejabulile. Kwamanye, umsindo wokushaya ikhwela uvela lapho usebenza kububanzi obuzwakalayo befrikhwensi. Ngakho-ke, izinto eziphansi ze-magnetic shrinkage zingasetshenziswa kuleli cala.

20. Kuyini ukungafani kazibuthe?

Lesi simo senzeka kuma-ferrites futhi sibonakala ngokuncipha kokungena okwenzekayo lapho umnyombo ungasebenzi uzibuthe. Lokhu kususwa kazibuthe kungenzeka uma izinga lokushisa lokusebenza lingaphezu kwezinga lokushisa lephoyinti le-Curie, futhi ukusetshenziswa kokudlidliza kwamanje okushintshanayo noma komshini kuncipha kancane kancane.

Kulesi simo, ukungena kwamanzi kuqala kukhuphukela ezingeni lakhona langempela bese kuncipha ngokushesha. Uma kungekho zimo ezikhethekile ezilindelwe ngesicelo, ushintsho ekungeneni luzoba luncane, njengoba izinguquko eziningi zizokwenzeka ezinyangeni ezilandela ukukhiqizwa. Amazinga okushisa aphezulu asheshisa lokhu kuncipha kokungeneka. I-Dissonance yamagnetic iyaphindwa ngemva kokuphuma kuzibuthe okuphumelelayo ngakunye futhi ngenxa yalokho ihlukile ekugugeni.


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